Tables and Appendices

Appendix 1

Number of Cities with at least 10,000 inhabitants (by region) [total population in '000s]

Source: Jan de Vries, European Urbanization 1500-1800 (London, 1984), pp. 39-40, with permission

Appendix 2

Urbanisation Ratios of Populations in cities of 10,000 and above as a percentage of total population in Europe, China and Japan

Source: Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 43, based on G. Rozman, Urban Networks in Ch’ing China and Tokugawa Japan (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1973) and adjusted for Europe

Appendix 3

Wages of Unskilled and Skilled Building Workers in Europe, 1500-1649

Source: Stephen Broadberry, and Bishnupriya Gupta, 'The Early Modern Great Divergence: Wages, Prices and Economic Development in Europe and Asia, 1500-1800', The Economic History Review, 59 (2006), pp. 5-7, with permission

Appendix 4

Index numbers of baptisms in Castile, 1580-1690 [index on base 1610-1619]

Source: J. Nadal, La populación español (siglos xvi-xx) (Barcelona : Ariel, 1984, p. 46, reproduced with permission)

Appendix 5

European Population, 1500-1650 [in millions]

Source: Jan de Vries, ‘Population’ in Thomas A. Brady, Heiko A. Oberman and James D. Tracy, Handbook of European History, 1400-1600 (Leiden: Brill, 1994), p. 13, reproduced with permission

Appendix 6

Military Activity in Europe, 1320-1750 (in three-year moving totals)

Source: Jean-Pierre Bardet and Jacques Dupâquier (eds), Histoire des Populations de l’Europe. Vol. 1 (Paris: Fayard, 1997), p. 242. Reproduced with permission

Appendix 7

Incident Reports of Plague

Source: J.-N. Biraben, Les hommes et la peste en France et dans les pays méditerranéens (Paris/The Hague, 1975), p.000 – verification, and permission still to be sought

Appendix 8

Yields per hectare of rice, maize and wheat in the sixteenth-century agricultures (kgs per hectare)

Source: Paolo Malanima, ‘Energy crisis and growth, 1650-1850: the European deviation in a comparative perspective’, Journal of Global History 1, p. 106 (Table 3)

Appendix 9

Estimated Populations of London and Antwerp, 1500-1650

Source: Ian Whyte, Migration and Society in Britain, 1550-1830 (London, 2000), p. 66; Plantin-Moretus Museum, Antwerp

Appendix 10

Land Reclamation in the Netherlands: 1540-1664

Source: Slicher van Bath, The Agrarian History of Western Europe, AD500-1850 (London, 1963), p. 200

Appendix 12

Mined Outputs of Gold and Silver from Spanish America and exports of gold and silver bullion to Seville (in kg. of fine metal, rounded to the nearest kg)

John Munro, 'The monetary origins of the 'price revolution': South German silver mining, merchant-banking and Venetian commerce, 1470-1540', in Global connections and monetary history, 1470-1800, ed. by Dennis Flynn, Arturo Giráldez and Richard von Glahn (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003), pp. 4-5, adapted.

Appendix 13

The Foundations of Europe’s Business Press (to 1650)

Source: John J. McCusker, and Cora Gravesteijn, The beginnings of commercial and financial journalism: the commodity price currents, exchange rate currents and money currents in early-modern Europe (Amsterdam: NEHA, 1991), p. 000 – reference to be checked and permission clarified].

Appendix 14

Estimated proportions of the population as noble by region of Europe in 1500-1650

Sources: Jonathan Dewald, The European Nobility, 1400-1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 23-4 (adapted); Norman Davies, God's Playground. A History of Poland. 2 vols (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1981), 1, p. 215; M.L. Bush, Rich noble, poor noble (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988), ch. 2

Appendix 15

Inflation of Honours (c.1500-1650)

Sources: Jonathan Dewald, The European Nobility, 1400-1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 27; L.P. Wright, 'The Military Orders in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Society: the Embodiment of a Historical Tradition', Past and Present, 43 (1969), p. 55; Charles Wendell Herman, 'Knights and Kings in Early Modern France. Royal Orders of Knighthood, 1469-1715' (PhD, University of Minnesota, 1990), Appendix IV.

Appendix 16

Exports in Traded Goods from the Americas to Europe, c.1560-1650

Source: Carla Rahn Phillips, ‘The Growth and composition of trade in the Iberian empires, 1450-1750’ in James D. Tracy (ed.), The Rise of Merchant Empires. Long Distance Trade in the Early Modern World, 1350-1750 (Cambridge, Cambridge Univesity Press, 1990), ch. 2 (adapted).

Appendix 17

Black Slavery in European Transatlantic Migration [to 1640]

Source: David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p. 9 (adapted)

Appendix 18

Foundations of Universities, University Botanical Gardens and Medical School Anatomy Theatres, 1500-1650

Sources: Wilhelm Frijhof, ‘Patterns’ in Hilde de Ridder-Symoens (ed.), A History of the University in Europe. Volume II (Universities in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, Cambridge U.P., 1996), p. 71; Paula Findlen, ‘Anatomy Theaters, Botanical Gardens, and Natural History Collections’ in Katharine Park and Lorraine Daston (eds), The Cambridge History of Science vol. 3 (Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2006), pp. 277 and 282; modified

Appendix 19

Approximate Size of Dutch Protestant Exile Communities, c.1560-1570

Source: Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt (Harmondsworth, 1979), p. 119 – reproduced with permission

Appendix 20

The Financial Burden of Sustaining the Spanish Empire, 1571-7

Source: Geoffrey Parker, The Grand Strategy of Philip II (New Haven and London: Yale U.P., 1998), p. 135

Appendix 21

Pamphlets and Libels published in Paris during the Catholic League

calculated from: Denis Pallier, Recherches sur l'imprimerie à Paris pendant la Ligue (1585-1594) (Geneva: Droz, 1976), pp. 219-432

Appendix 22

Postal Times in Sixteenth-Century Europe

Postal times from Brussels, as contained in the contracts with the Imperial Master of Posts, Franz von Taxis of 18 January 1505 and 12 November 1516 [from Wolfgang Behringer, Im Zeichen des Merkur (2003), p. 74]

Appendix 23

Revenue Distribution in Charles V’s Empire

Source: James D. Tracy, Emperor Charles V. Impresario of War. Campaign Strategy, international finance, and domestic politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), Table 5.1, p. 101 and 5.2, p. 102. Reproduced with permission

Appendix 24

Charles V’s Loans to be Repaid by the Treasury of Castile, 1521-1555

Source: James D. Tracy, Emperor Charles V. Impresario of War. Campaign Strategy, international finance, and domestic politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), Table 5.1, p. 101 and 5.2, p. 102. Reproduced with permission

Appendix 25

Estimated Tonnages of Naval Fleets in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Source: Jan Glete, War and the state in Early Modern Europe. Spain, the Dutch Republic and Sweden as Fiscal-Military States, 1500-1660 (London and New York: Routledge, 2002), p. 37